Euoplocephalus habitat was vast floodplains bordering ancient rivers.

No wonder the animal's name means "well-armoured head". Its skull was so thick that even a raptor like Deinonychuscould leave barely a scratch.

Some scientists think that Euoplocephalus could even use their front legs to dig for tubers in the ground, like some mammals do today.

Euoplocephalus had an unusual and unique active form of defence. If a predator, such as a tyrannosaur persisted, Euoplocephalus would swing its club-like tail from side to side, causing serious injury.

Originally this dinosaur was given the name Stereocephalus, but it was later discovered that other scientists had used this name to refer to a new species of insect. It is a rule among scientists that each formal name of an animal can only be used once, which meant that Stereocephalus became Euoplocephalus.



"Well-armoured Head"


Euoplocephalus was a strange-looking dinosaur: almost turtle-like in appearance, with spiny body armour and a clubbed tail. Euoplocephalus would have been one of the most armoured dinos ever. Its head alone had bony eyelids that came down like shutters, a cobblestone-like bony forehead, and pyramid-shaped horns jutting from the back of the head.



Euoplocephalus lived during the Late Cretaceous.

Extinct for about: 00,000,000,000 Days00 Hours00 Min00 Sec

How old are you?
00,00,00.00 of your lifetimes have passed since their extinction.

They Call it Home

Euoplocephalus has been found in Dinosaur Park and Horseshoe Canyon formations of Alberta, Canada and the Judith River Formation of Montana. These stretches of ancient rock have been preserved for 80 million years.Euoplocephalus would have lived alongside StegocerasAlbertosaurus, and many others.



Rivers, Lakes & Wetlands

Rivers, Lakes & Wetlands




  • North America
  • Montana
  • Canada

What We Heard About Their Hearing

Human Ear

Euoplocephalus was able to hear low frequency sounds, the same kind of sounds it could have produced itself.


What Big Teeth You Have

Dinosaur Tooth

Don't let the feeble teeth ofEuoplocephalus fool you. It was an eating machine with deep cheek pouches, and a secondary palate so that it could chew and breathe at the same time.


Nose Knowledge

Human Nose

This dinosaur really smelled! It had an extensive and complex respiratory passage, which may have meant that its sense of smell was outstanding.


The Poop Scoop

Dinosaur Poop

Euoplocephalus left us very little about its leavings, but since they had a very high-fibre diet, it would be safe to say it would have produced mountains of dung. 


The Most Fantastic Find

Euoplocephalus is the best known ankylosaur. Palaeontologists have recovered over forty individual fossils consisting of over fifteen known skulls, as well as a few almost-complete specimens with armour plating still attached. The discoveries with armour plating still attached are the most fascinating because it allows scientists to see exactly how the animal would have looked in real life.

From The Expert

Most animals have a quite simple nasal passageway in which the nostrils are linked to the throat by a short passage. Ankylosaurs have a highly convoluted nasal passageway that twists round and round like a loopy strand of spaghetti. What was the purpose of this strange shape? Maybe the looping condition helped ankylosaurs smell, breathe, regulate body temperature better, or make melodic sounds.


Sizing it Up


Compare to:

2m / 6.56ft

Euoplocephalus was 2/3 the size of Stegosaurus.

1 human
1 human
2 m / 6.56 ft


Number of people head-to-toe to reach the top of Euoplocephalus. (average human height 1.76 m / 5.7 ft)

Compare to:

6m / 19.68ft

Euoplocephalus was the size of a tank.

1 human
1 human
6 m / 19.68 ft


Number of people side by side touching finger tips to match this length (average arm span 1.7 m / 5.58 ft ).

Compare to:

2.0tonnes / 2.24short tons

Euoplocephalus was double the weight of Allosaurus.

euoplocephalus weight

Number of people weighing 70.31 kg / 155 lbs needed to match the weight of Euoplocephalus.


Dino On The Go!

Euoplocephalus may have been able to trot, though speed was not its best defence.

8kph / 4.97mph

  • Horse 52 kph / 32.3 mph
  • Euoplocephalus8 kph / 4.97 mph
  • Cheetah 120.7 kph / 75 mph

22.5kph / 14mph

The average human sprint speed.


Family Album

Family Album

Euoplocephalus is part of the group of heavily armoured dinosaurs known as the ankylosaurs. They are also part of a larger group known as the thyreophorans, which also include the plated stegosaurs. So apparently, low wattage brains run in the family.



Euoplocephalus Vision

Euoplocephalus would have needed a pair of prehistoric glasses, since it had small eyes and most probably weak vision.

Euoplocephalus Vision.

Human Vision

The human field of view is roughly 180 degrees.

Human Field of View

The Skinny On Their Skin


Euoplocephalus' body was covered in bands of plates running down like pavements covering its entire body.


What's In The Nest?

Euoplocephalus Egg

We can guess from other similar dinosaurs thatEuoplocephalus laid eggs much like our modern turtles and they would have deposited 20-30 rounded eggs in a heap.



euoplocephalus brain size

Euoplocephalus shares the distinction of being a bit of a dunce like the tiny-brained Stegosaurus. The brain of Euoplocephalus could sit nicely inside a coffee cup. 


Quite The Bite

Euoplocephalus were vegetarians, probably eating the equivalent of over 700 carrots per day.

Number of burgers a person would have to consume in a day in order to match the Euoplocephalus



Good Eatin'

Plant Icon

Euoplocephalus probably ate low growing plants like small ferns, cycads and perhaps even flowering plants, which first evolved in the Cretaceous.

Euoplocephalus had a stomach like a fermentation vat which would help decompose even the toughest plants. To accommodate such an enormous digestive machine, the ribcage was deep and the abdomen was built like a barrel. 


Parental Guidance

Euoplocephalus Parent and Child

Unlike their uber-armoured parents, the babyEuoplocephalus were not very well protected and entirely lacked the bony "helmet" on their heads. Because of this, scientists believe that infants may have been kept together in groups for protection.


True Colours

Color Wheel

We don't quite know, so traditional dinosaur illustrations are our best guide!